In his 1963 letter from birmingham jail, martin luther king, jr. , wrote, to a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because socrates practiced civil disobedience. the south african statesman, nelson mandela, eleven of whose twenty- seven prison years were spent at hard labor in rock quarries, describes the efforts of the prisoners to educate themselves by forming study groups in the writing quarries. the style of teaching was socratic in nature, he says ( long walk to freedom), with questions posed by leaders to their study groups. equally contemporary, but contemptuous of socrates, is the introduction of the al qaeda training manual ( department of justice translation, ellipses in original) : philosophers and students of philosophy with a desire to see how socrates is viewed outside the discipline might wish to consult the following supplementary document:. while the sacred ship was on its journey to delos, no executions were allowed in the city. although the duration of the annual voyage varied with conditions, xenophon says it took thirty- one days in 399 ( memorabilia 4. 2) ; if so, socrates lived thirty days beyond his trial, into the month of skirophorion. a day or two before the end, socratess childhood friend crito tried to persuade socrates to escape. [ junejuly 399 crito] socrates replied that he listens to nothing but the argument that on reflection seems best and that neither to do wrong or to return a wrong is ever right, not even to injure in return for an injury received ( crito 46b, 49d), not even under threat of death ( cf. apology 32a), not even for ones family ( crito 54b).
socrates could not point to a harm that would outweigh the harm he would be inflicting on the city if he now exiled himself unlawfully when he could earlier have done so lawfully ( crito 52c) ; such lawbreaking would have confirmed the jurys judgment that he was a corrupter of writing the young ( crito 53bc) and brought shame on his family and friends. my tale, socrates, is one of your sort, for love was the theme which occupied us - love after a fashion: lysias has been writing about a fair youth who was being tempted, but not by a lover; and this was the point: he ingeniously proved that the non- lover should be accepted rather than the lover. socrates, the wisest human. in " apology, " plato describes socrates at his trial in 399 b. where socrates tells the court how his friend chaerephon asked the delphic oracle if anyone was wiser than himself. the oracle' s answer — that no human was wiser than socrates — left him bewildered, so he embarked on a quest to find someone wiser. our earliest extant sourceand the only writing one who can claim to have known socrates in his early yearsis the playwright aristophanes. his comedy, clouds, was produced in 423 when the other two writers of our extant sources, xenophon and plato, were infants. in the play, the character socrates heads a think- o- rama in which young men study the natural world, from insects to stars, and study slick argumentative techniques as well, lacking all respect for the athenian sense of propriety. the actor wearing the mask of socrates makes fun of the traditional gods of athens ( lines 24748, 367, 42324), mimicked later by the young protagonist, and gives naturalistic explanations of phenomena athenians viewed as divinely directed ( lines 22733; cf.
theaetetus 152e, 153cd, 173e174a; phaedo 96a100a). worst of all, he teaches dishonest techniques for avoiding repayment of debt ( linesand encourages young men to beat their parents into submission ( lines 140846). see more results. once one has begun to read about socrates in platos dialogues, one begins to realize that the old philosopher is an icon of popular culture who has inspired diverse associations and whose name has been appropriated for all manner of different purposes: socrates is a crater on earths moon; socrates is a barefoot rag doll made by the unemployed philosophers guild; socrates is a european union education and training program; socrates is the fifth movement of leonard bernsteins serenade for solo violin, string orchestra, harp, and percussion, after platos symposium; socrates is a sculpture park in new york city; and esocrates is a business enterprise. allusions to socrates abound in literature, history, and political tracts, and he has been a subject for artists since ancient times. among the more famous paintings are raphaels school of athens at the vatican and davids death of socrates at the metropolitan museum in new york. socratess influence was particularly notable among the u. founders, as the following short collection of quotations demonstrates: like benjamin franklin, the english romantic era poets were taken with socrates as a model for moral behavior and pressed the comparison with jesus. percy bysshe shelley, who refers to socrates as the jesus christ of greece ( line 33, fragments of epipsychidion), wrote a splendid translation of platos symposium ( oconner ) ; and john keats wrote in 1818, i have no doubt that thousands of people never heard of have had hearts completely disinterested: i can remember but twosocrates and jesus. george gordon, lord byron, gives the ghost of socrates a walk- on part in his play, the deformed transformed where two characters disagree over what is significant about socrates:. Weightlifting research paper.
socrates on the forgetfulness that comes with writing socratesbce) was a greek philosopher who thought and taught through argumentative dialogue, or dialectic. socrates did not write down any of his thoughts, however his dialogues were recorded by his student and protégé, the philosopher plato ( 428 – 347 bce). the socratic problem is a rats nest of complexities arising from the fact that various people wrote about socrates whose accounts differ in crucial respects, leaving us to wonder which, if any, are accurate representations of the historical socrates. there is, and always will be, a socratic problem. this is inevitable, said guthrie ( 1969, 6), looking back on a gnarled history between ancient and contemporary times that is narrated in detail by press ( 1996), but barely touched on below. the difficulties are increased because all those who knew and wrote about socrates lived before any standardization of modern categories of, or sensibilities about, what constitutes historical accuracy or poetic license. all authors present their own interpretations of the personalities and lives of their characters, whether they mean to or not, whether they write fiction or biography or philosophy ( if the philosophy they write has characters), so other criteria must be introduced for deciding among the contending views of who socrates really was. a look at the three primary ancient sources of information about socrates ( § 2.
1) will provide a foundation for appreciating how contemporary interpretations differ ( § 2. 2) and why the differences matter ( § 2. as plato changes, the writing philosophical persona of his socrates is made to change ( vlastos 1991, 53) a view sometimes referred to as the mouthpiece theory. because the analyst is interested in positions or doctrines ( particularly as conclusions from, or tested by, arguments), the focus of analysis is usually on a particular philosophical view in or across dialogues, with no special attention given to context or to dialogues considered socrates on writing as wholes; and evidence from dialogues in close chronological proximity is likely to be considered more strongly confirming than that from dialogues of other developmental periods. the result of applying the premises is a firm list ( contested, of course, by others) of ten theses held by socrates, all of which are incompatible with the corresponding ten theses held by plato ( 1991, 4749). one thing is certain about the historical socrates: even among those who knew him in life, there was profound disagreement about what his actual views and methods were. apart from the three primary sources below, there were those called minor socratics, not for the quality of their work but because so little or none of it is extant, about whose view of socrates we shall probably never know much. [ 2] after socratess death, the tradition became even more disparate.
as nehamas ( 1999, 99) puts it, with the exception of the epicureans, every philosophical school in antiquity, whatever its orientation, saw in him either its actual founder or the type of person to whom its adherents were to aspire. marking the maturity of the literary contextualist tradition in the early writing twenty- first century is a greater diversity of writing approaches and an attempt to be more internally critical ( see hyland ). writing sample of essay on a given topic " what is philosophy according to socrates" philosophy according to socrates philosophy is an educational topic that employs reasons and logics in order to be able to understand what’ s real and enables one to be in a position of answering basic questions about knowledge, life and the nature of human. beginning in the 1950s, vlastos ( 1991, 4580) recommended a set of mutually supportive premises that together provide a plausible framework in the analytic tradition for socratic philosophy as a pursuit distinct from platonic philosophy. although the premises have deep roots in early attempts to solve the socratic problem ( see the supplementary document linked above), the beauty of vlastoss particular configuration is its fecundity. the first premise marks a break with a tradition of regarding plato as a dialectician who held his assumptions tentatively and revised them constantly; rather,. e full list on plato. ad writing about writing in socrates café. socrates café is all about making ours, on local and global scales, an inclusive, thoughtful and participatory society where regular exchanges of. faced with inconsistencies in socratess views and methods from one dialogue to another, the literary contextualist has no socratic problem because plato is seen as an artist of surpassing literary skill, the ambiguities in whose dialogues are intentional representations of actual ambiguities in the subjects philosophy investigates.
thus terms, arguments, characters, and in fact all elements in the dialogues should be addressed in their literary context. bringing the tools of literary criticism to the study of the dialogues, and sanctioned in that practice by platos own use of literary devices and practice of textual critique ( protagoras 339a347a, republic 2. 412b, ion, and phaedrus 262c264e), most contextualists ask of each dialogue what its aesthetic unity implies, pointing out that the dialogues themselves are autonomous, containing almost no cross- references. contextualists who attend to what they see as the aesthetic unity of the whole platonic corpus, and therefore seek a consistent picture of socrates, advise close readings of the dialogues and appeal to a number of literary conventions and devices said to reveal socratess actual personality. for both varieties of contextualism, the platonic dialogues are like a brilliant constellation whose separate stars naturally require separate focus. maria konnikova is a writer living in new york city, where she works on an assortment of non- fiction and fiction. her first book, mastermind ( viking, ), was a new york times. plato and socrates are two philosophers that showed differences between them when it comes to their philosophical concepts and thought. one of the primary differences between plato and socrates is that plato gave a lot of importance to the soul of the human being than the body. on the other hand, socrates did not speak much about the soul.
socrates was also deeply interested in understanding the limits of human knowledge. when he was told that the oracle at delphi had declared that he was the wisest man in athens, socrates balked. something that has strengthened xenophons prima facie claim as a source for socratess life is his work as a historian; his hellenica ( history of greece) is one of the chief sources for the period 411362, after thucydidess history abruptly ends in the midst of the peloponnesian wars. although xenophon tends to moralize and does not follow the superior conventions introduced by thucydides, still it is sometimes argued that, having had no philosophical axes to grind, xenophon may have presented a more accurate portrait of socrates than plato does. but two considerations have always weakened that claim: ( 1) the socrates of xenophons works is so pedestrian that it is difficult to imagine his inspiring fifteen or more people to write socratic discourses in the period following his death. ( 2) xenophon could not have chalked up many hours with socrates or with reliable writing informants. he lived in erchia, about 15 kilometers and across the hymettus mountains from socratess haunts in the urban area of athens, and his love of horses and horsemanship ( on which he wrote a still valuable treatise) seem to have taken up considerable time. he left athens in 401 on an expedition to persia and, for a variety of reasons ( mercenary service for thracians and spartans; exile), never resided in athens again. and writing now a third is in order. ( 3) it turns out to have been ill- advised to assume that xenophon would apply the same criteria for accuracy to his socratic discourses as to his histories. [ 4] the biographical and historical background xenophon deploys in his memoirs of socrates fails to correspond to such additional sources as we have from archaeology, history, the courts, and literature.
the widespread use of computers in classical studies, enabling the comparison of ancient persons, and the compiling of information about each of them from disparate writing sources, has made incontrovertible this observation about xenophons socratic works. xenophons memoirs are pastiches, several of which simply could not have occurred as presented. socrates saw writing in the same way: writing cannot be used as a sort of standalone memory bank because people who read a text will only have a partial understanding of the author’ s meaning, and therefore should not be taken seriously. socrates' speech, however, is by no means an " apology" in our modern understanding of the word. the name of the dialogue derives from the greek " apologia, " which translates as a defense, or a speech made in defense. thus, in the apology, socrates attempts to defend himself and his conduct- - certainly not to apologize for it. soon after socrates’ death, several members of his circle writing preserved and praised his memory by writing works that represent him in his most characteristic activity— conversation. his interlocutors in these ( typically adversarial) exchanges included people he happened to meet, devoted followers, prominent political figures, and leading.
write concluding sentence. plato is considered by many writing to be the most important philosopher who ever lived. he is known writing as the father of idealism in writing philosophy. his ideas were elitist, with the philosopher king the ideal ruler. socrates presented that writing could not provide actual knowledge unless the author is accessed ( plato 32). socrates held that writing developed forgetfulness within the readers’ souls since they would not make use of their memories. readers merely believe the external written features, but do not remember anything. 21 hours ago · by this progression, greek philosophy, as first developed by socrates, was spread throughout the. he poses this question: asebeia against the pantheon of athens, ace my homework review and corruption of the youth of the city- state; the accusers cited open university creative writing ma two impious acts by socrates: the big three ancient greek philosophers. it is funny in its own right. it does not follow, however, that plato represented the views and methods of socrates ( or anyone, for that matter) as he recalled them, much less as they were originally uttered. there are a number of cautions and caveats that should be in place from the start.
( i) plato may have shaped the character socrates ( or other characters) to serve his own purposes, whether philosophical or literary or both. ( ii) the dialogues representing socrates as a youth and young man took place, if they took place at all, before plato was born and when he was a small child. ( iii) one should be cautious even about the dramatic dates of platos dialogues because they are calculated with reference to characters whom we know primarily, though not only, from the dialogues. ( iv) exact dates should be treated with a measure of skepticism for numerical precision can be misleading. even when a specific festival or other reference fixes the season or month of a dialogue, or birth of a character, one should imagine a margin of error. although writing it becomes obnoxious to use circa or plus- minus everywhere, the ancients did not require or desire contemporary precision in these matters. all the children born during a full year, for example, had the same nominal birthday, accounting for the conversation at lysis 207b, odd by contemporary standards, in which two boys disagree about who is the elder. philosophers have often decided to bypass the historical problems altogether and to assume for the sake of argument that platos socrates is the socrates who is relevant to potential progress in philosophy. that strategy, as we shall soon writing see, gives rise to a new socratic problem ( § 2. socrates also argues that a person can have virtues without necessarily having the kind of knowledge that typifies mathematics of nature science.
aristotle is capable of demonstrating that ethics and personal interest may be related, that ethics is well- suited to common sense, and that a virtuous person is capable of achieving rational decisions. the evidence vlastos uses varies for this claim, but is of several types: stylometric data, internal cross references, external events mentioned, differences in doctrines and methods featured, and other ancient testimony ( particularly that of aristotle). the dialogues of platos socratic period, called elenctic dialogues for socratess preferred method of questioning, are apology, charmides, crito, euthyphro, gorgias, hippias minor, ion, laches, protagoras, and book 1 of the republic. the developmentalists platonic dialogues are potentially a discrete sequence, the order of which enables the analyst to separate socrates from plato on the basis of different periods in platos intellectual evolution. socrates’ thoughts on the subjects of rhetoric and writing will be the main points of this paper. the first thing one must consider is whether socrates on writing there is any merit in writing or rhetoric. according to socrates, speech writing is not bad. the only way socrates on writing it can ever be bad is if it is not done well. edy by its very nature is a tricky source for information about anyone. a good reason to believe that the representation of socrates is not merely comic exaggeration but systematically misleading is that clouds amalgamates in one character, socrates, features now well known to be unique to other particular fifth- century intellectuals ( dover 1968, xxxii- lvii). perhaps aristophanes chose socrates to represent garden- variety intellectuals because socratess physiognomy was strange enough to be comic by itself.
aristophanes genuinely objected to what he saw as social instability brought on by the freedom athenian youths enjoyed to study with professional rhetoricians, sophists ( see § 1), and natural philosophers, e. , those who, like the presocratics, studied the cosmos or nature. that socrates eschewed any earning potential in philosophy writing does not seem to have been significant to the great writer of comedies. aristophaness depiction is important because platos socrates says at his trial ( apology 18ab, 19c) that most of his jurors have grown up believing the falsehoods spread about him in writing the play. socrates calls aristophanes more dangerous than the three men who brought charges against him in 399 because aristophanes had poisoned the jurors minds while they were young. aristophanes did not stop accusing socrates in 423 when clouds placed third behind another play in which socrates was mentioned as barefoot; rather, he soon began writing a revision, writing which he published but never produced. aristophanes appears to have given up on writing reviving clouds in about 416, but his attacks on socrates continued. again in 414 with birds, and in 405 with frogs, aristophanes complained of socratess deleterious writing effect on the youths of the city, including socratess neglect of the poets. socrates ranks as one of the most famous philosophers of socrates on writing all time. this is a sample essay on socrates and his views on injustice. below, a ultius writer discusses socrates' arguments against unjust acts.
another source for the historical socrates is the soldier- historian, xenophon. xenophon says explicitly of socrates, i was never acquainted with anyone who took greater care to find out what each of his companions knew ( memorabilia 4. 1) ; and plato corroborates xenophons statement by illustrating throughout his dialogues socratess adjustment of the level and type of his questions to the particular individuals with whom he talked. if it is true that socrates succeeded in pitching his conversation at writing the right level for each of his companions, the striking differences between xenophons socrates and platos is largely explained by the differences between their two personalities. xenophon was a practical man whose ability to recognize philosophical issues is almost imperceptible, so it is plausible that his socrates appears as such a practical and helpful advisor because that is the side of socrates xenophon witnessed. xenophons socrates differs additionally from platos in offering advice about subjects in which xenophon was himself experienced, but socrates was not: moneymaking ( xenophon, memorabilia 2. 7) and estate management ( xenophon, oeconomicus), suggesting that xenophon may have entered into the writing of socratic discourses ( as aristotle labeled the genre, poetics 1447b11) making the character socrates a mouthpiece for his own views. his other works mentioning or featuring socrates are anabasis, apology, hellenica, and symposium. it did not help matters that socrates seemed to have a higher opinion of women than most of his companions had, speaking of men and women, priests and priestesses, and naming foreign women as his teachers: socrates claimed to have learned rhetoric from aspasia of miletus, the de facto spouse of pericles ( plato, menexenus) ; and to have learned erotics from the priestess diotima of mantinea ( plato, symposium). socrates was unconventional in a related respect. athenian citizen males of the upper social classes did not marry until they were at least thirty, and athenian females were poorly educated and kept sequestered until puberty, when they were given in marriage by their fathers. thus the socialization and education of males often involved a relationship for which the english word pederasty ( though often used) is misleading, in which a youth approaching manhood, fifteen to seventeen, became the beloved socrates on writing of a male lover a few years older, under whose tutelage and through whose influence and gifts, the younger man would be guided and improved.
it was assumed among athenians that mature men would find youths sexually attractive, and such relationships were conventionally viewed as beneficial to both parties by family and friends alike. a degree of hypocrisy ( or denial), however, was implied by the arrangement: officially it did not involve sexual relations between the lovers and, if it did, then the beloved was not supposed to derive pleasure from the actbut ancient evidence ( comedies, vase paintings, et al. ) shows that both restrictions were often violated ( dover 1989, 204). what was odd about socrates is that, although he was no exception to the rule of finding youths attractive ( plato, charmides 155d, protagoras 309ab; xenophon, symposium 4. 2728), he refused the physical advances of even his favorite ( plato, symposium 219bd) and kept his eye on the improvement of their, and all the athenians, souls ( plato, apology 30ab), a mission he said he had been assigned by the oracle of apollo at delphi, if he was interpreting his friend chaerephons report correctly ( plato, apology 20e23b), a preposterous claim in the eyes of his fellow citizens. socrates also acknowledged a rather strange personal phenomenon, a daimonion or internal voice that prohibited his doing certain things, some trivial and some important, often unrelated to matters of right and wrong ( thus not to be confused with the popular notions of a superego or a conscience). the implication that he was guided by something he regarded as divine or semi- divine was all the more reason for other athenians to be suspicious of socrates. pdf narrative vs. expository writing - eagle mountain- saginaw. expository writing 1.
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sometimes it can do both. sometimes it is exclusively concerned with the one or the other. lesson 1: exposition and a field triplesson 2: same story, different modelesson 3: spooky expository essayslesson 4: mentor expository essaylesson 5: expository v. narrative ( and a gorilla) lesson 6: writing an expository essaylesson 7: expository exemplarslesson 8: introduction idol! lesson 9: peer review expository essay. the difference between exploratory and conclusive research is drawn by sandhursen ( ) in a way that exploratory studies result in a range of causes and alternative options for a solution of a specific problem, whereas, conclusive studies identify the final information that is the only solution to an existing research problem. on writing other words, exploratory research design simply explores the research questions, leaving room for further researches, whereas conclusive research design is aimed to. check your writing for grammatical mistakes and deliver error- free writing. score your essay for grammar, spot plagiarism, and fix all errors! how do you write a research paper?
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in the phaedrus, written circa 370 bce, plato recorded socrates' s discussion of the egyptian myth of the creation of writing.
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many analytic ancient philosophers in the late twentieth century mined the gold vlastos had uncovered, and many of those who were productive in the developmentalist vein in the early days went on to constructive work of their own ( see bibliography). in contemporary political life, and internationally, socrates is invoked for widely variant purposes.